An electric arc is a plasma discharge found in the high voltage electric generator. Such sudden electrical discharge can produce an ionized gas that in turn becomes a plasma. This plasma is so hot that it exceeds the sun's surfaces temperature of 35,000 F which is a temperature hot enough to vaporize metals and any organic matter. That mind-boggling number suggests that such temperature is a thing that you should not mess with.
Common places of electric arcs
Between Strands of wire
Between pantographs and power line
Between electrical pickup shoe and power rail
480-volt switchgear with distribution panel
Protecting against arc flashes
Accidents occur when a sudden flash of electric arc bursts out of the electrical generator. This sudden arc flash can be very destructive. The arc's temperature of 35,000 can easily melt or destroy an equipment. A dazed electrical worker can suffer 3rd-degree burns, years excruciating or painful skin burn treatments and disabling scars that can disfigure a face or a skin. Another is the financial pain left after a lengthy medical treatment and hospitalization. To protect yourself from arc flashes, you have to wear a face, arm, and body protection suit that resemble a hazmat suit used in handling biohazard. This protection is called Protective personal equipment (PPE) that includes a helmet, goggles, gloves, respirator and overcoats that can withstand arc flashes
Poor maintenance and dusty equipment
Old electrical parts
Conductive dust buildup
Failure to de-energize an equipment
Appliances have service lifespan that can last from one decade to four decades or more. The way you use the appliance can affect how long the appliance will last. To prolong the appliance's durability and to observe safety, you may find the tips below:
Beforehand, fire and electrical safety is a priority and thus the following:
Always wear sneakers, rubber gloves or mittens when handling electrical wiring.
Watch out for electrical node boxes that can be affected with short circuits.
Never overload AC socket with appliances as this causes heating and eventually fire.
Read voltage and amperage specifications. When an 110 device is plugged into 220 outlets without a transformer results into its busted fuse.
Check wiring for worn out covering that may pose electrical hazards
Always close safety gas valve of LPG tank. Look for gas leaks emanating from the gas valve by soaking it with detergent. A gas leak will produce bubbles aside from the obvious smell.
Be wary that circuit boards can still contain electrical charge especially the capacitor.
Keep the fire extinguisher handy where it is available in dry chemical powder and water. Replace old and expired fire extinguishers.
Do not leave appliances unattended and plugged for a long time. Fire hazard devices such as hair dryer, iron and fan can cause the fire.
Clear kitchen area of flammable materials such as rayon, paper, plastic, and textiles.
Seek professional services. For quick repairs. Select the best among them.
These mobile helpers assist homeowners in running daily errands and maintaining them frequently is a must for efficiently working appliances.
Microwave oven – Never heat food inside the metallic container. The radiation can reflect on the metal surface and bounce back to the magnetron and may damage the appliance. Avoid overloading with foodstuff. Heating efficiency may be affected and can cause strain on the appliance.
Battery – Never short circuit batteries. They may explode or catch fires. Avoid discharging to the point of emptiness as these can shorten battery charge cycle or battery life.
Washing machine – Never overload, with clothing as these may result in both damaging the clothes or the motor itself.
Refrigerator – Avoid frequent opening of appliances when unnecessary as this may cause more energy consumption and cold temperature release. Hot foods should be left cold before storing inside.
Coffeemaker – Clean filter by removing mineral and coffee slime deposits. Avoid placing any body parts directly in contact with frothing tube. The steam coming out from the device is enough to scald.
Dishwashers – Make sure that ceramics and cutleries are free from food debris. Remember, dishwashers are cleaning machines, not trash bins. Remove filter and tube funnel to check suspecting food residue that may clog the waterway. Use approved institutional liquid detergent fit for machine use.
Circuit boards –This device acts as the control unit for electrical, gas and lighting control for entire RV home unit. Be sure to wear anti-static wire strap when handling. Small components namely MOS and CMOS are affected by static electricity discharges.
Home cooling is an indispensable part of US homes. According to US statistics published by the US Department of Energy, about 6% of household’s energy goes to space cooling, and 2/3 of US homes use an air conditioner. When each of the homeowners’ income is summed up, they have already spent about $11 billion per year. That huge expense shows there a lot of expenses in energy use. Some of that goes to wastage such as an electric fan left running in a room without occupants or an AC that is kept running with a dirty air filter. That huge amount can already buy some of the most expensive things on the planet or feed thousands or build thousands of houses. With saving energy, we allow ourselves to maximize the savings, lessen carbon footprint, increase quality living and prolong appliance’s useful life. Here we proudly present some of the ad vices on conserving energy whenever you use your appliances such as water heater, AC, and furnace.
Don’t set the thermostat in the higher setting – contrary to some myths, the thermostat does not accelerate heating or cooling. It slowly changes temperature to the desired level.
Don’t leave the electric fan running when not in use – Electric fans does not cool down the entire room when left for running for hours or even for a whole day. It cools people not your room.
Install a proper air conditioner or furnace for your home – A wrong size or type of AC/furnace wherein it uses more electricity and fails to heat up or cool down your room. For instance, a window type AC won’t cool a football size building, while using a package AC is too much for a bedroom size room.
Use and install thermostat – With this device, you can be sure that are in control of the AC temperature of all the time. You can only set the desired temperature suitable for a particular situation. Another is, with the thermostat you can also set the AC in timer so that you can estimate the time of your usage.
Use Energy saving light bulbs – Replace CFL and incandescent lamps with LED light which are more efficient, long lasting and energy savings. LED light bulbs are also resistant to shock breakage.
Use an energy star certified appliance – By using an energy Star certified appliance, you’ll have a device that is more energy efficient and consumes less energy in the long run. You can know this when an appliance has an energy star logo seal.
Make a solar bulb for your home – You can take advantage of the sun rays during the daytime. Grab a soda bottle, pour in a mixture of bleach or detergent and filtered water and install them into cutout roofing and install it to your ceiling. The sun’s ray will act as a light source to your solar bulb and voila, you have now a solar bulb. If you are living in temperate climates, use food grade mineral oil as a medium instead.
Place indoor plants in your home – Indoor plants act as a natural air conditioner by increasing humidity and oxygen our room. Ideal plants are aloe vera, English ivy, fuchsia, hibiscus, and begonia.
Insulate air ducts – Insulate your air ducts to prevent 30% energy loss from y our AC or furnace. You can use silicon cement or epoxy to seal off those cracks or crevices.
Cesium metal in glass ampoule: Courtesy of Wikipedia and Dnn87
Have you seen a liquid metal? or a liquid metal that can harden and mimic people similar to the T1000 robot from Terminator movies? How about a metal that explodes when placed in water. Read on below the five strangest substances.
Mercury - This baffles many since it the only element that is liquid metal at room temperature. It's a very dense metal that objects such as the bullet, coin and lead would float in the fountain full of-of mercury. The element is used as a switch, dental filler or amalgam, a liquid for thermometer bulbs, and its compounds or derivatives as a vapor for light bulbs. What limits mercury use is its toxicity comparable to lead and other toxic elements. Mercury compounds such as methyl mercury and dimethyl mercury can irritate esophagus linings and damage kidneys. Elemental mercury or the metal mercury is not toxic when ingested since it's not reactive but having the liquid metal in the gut and have it reacted with chemicals from food can cause problems.
Gallium - Resembling the T1000 shape-shifting robot from the Terminator movie, gallium looks like mercury but only melts at 29.C (nearly the warmth of the human body). Along with cesium, mercury, and rubidium, gallium is one of the metals that are liquid at room temperature. One video on the internet showed a spoon made up of gallium. It was placed in hot water and soon after the spoon melted and became a liquid metal like mercury. Gallium can be fashioned into various objects or turned into an object for joke or amusement purposes just like the spoon gallium. The compound gallium nitride is used in LED and laser diodes.
Cesium - A silvery gold-like metal that is liquid at room temperature. It is the most reactive metal that is even more reactive than fluorine. If you place a small drop of cesium in water, it will spark. Again, if you place a large amount of cesium in a water pail, the element will cause an explosion. Cesium is used in atomic clocks and cesium compounds are used as an oxidizer in the pyrotechnic colorant.
Indium - This one is very soft metal and can be cut with a knife. Since it is soft, it's ideal as a solder for electronic motherboard uses. It has a melting point of 150 C and produces a violet flame when heated above the melting point. It uses include semiconductor addition to gallium nitride for LED production and as a coating for mirror production. Indium metal itself has low toxicity, unlike its compounds which can cause diseases such as indium lung.
Thallium - A very soft metal that is highly toxic including its compounds. For this reason, thallium has been used as rat poison owing to the chemicals odorless and colorless characteristics. Uses include as a rat poison which has been limited because of its toxicity, as an additional compound for mercury in thermometers, and as ingredients in battery
Fluorine - is a greenish-yellow gas at room temperature. Fluorine has various compounds that are used in industrial applications such as refrigerant gas, as an ingredient in strong acid hydrofluoric acid, as an ingredient in Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for Teflon production. A fluorine-related chemical fluoride is often used in dental health remedies such as water fluoridation to prevent tooth decay.
Iridium - The most corrosion resistant metal that can even resist temperatures of 2000 C. The metal has many uses such as hardening metal alloys, as parts for heavy duty electrical contacts, as a standard kilogram weight, as an alloy mixed with osmium for hardening pen tips. The isotope Iridium 192 (a form of an element which has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons) is used in radiotherapy.
Tritium- An isotope of Hydrogen, tritium is made in nuclear reactors by irradiating lithium. Tritium's radioactivity is not dangerous since it just emits beta radiation which just penetrates the skin. Its half-life decay is 12 years and it will continuously glow for more than a decade. Since tritium glows and gives off a light, it used in glowing keychains, exit signages, and watches. Since Tritium is difficult and expensive to produce, a gram of the hydrogen isotope costs about $30,000 per gram.
Uranium - One of the heaviest metal, Uranium is radioactive and chemically toxic. Since it is radioactive, it is used in the nuclear reactor. The isotope Uranium 235 is used as nuclear fuel. Just a 1 kilogram of Uranium is equivalent to 1,500,000 kilograms of coal. The military uses spent Uranium as a shielding for tanks and bullets.
Flouroantinomic acid - Is the strongest acid known to man. It is over billion times stronger than pure sulfuric acid. The acid is so strong that it is only stored in a Teflon container since the Teflon lined container is impervious to the destructive nature of the acid.
Rubidium- This silvery-white metal is one of the metals that are liquid at room temperature. At 39 C Rubidium melts and turns into liquid metal. Since rubidium is highly reactive with water and air, it is placed in vacuum ampoule or mineral oil. Upon contact with water, rubidium burns and oxidizes. Rubidium is used as gas trace remover in vacuum tubes, its isotope RB87 is used in dating rocks.
Mercury, the only metal that is liquid at room temperature, mystifies us with its shiny and brilliant silvery appearance. The element has been known for thousands of years as an element used in alchemy and magic. Ancient people during the early AD millennium believed that mercury is the answer for curing disease. The Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang ingested mercury pills prescribed by his physicians. Qin Shi Huang believed that the mercury pills will bring immortality. Unfortunately for him, the mercury caused his death. Drinking elemental mercury (the metal ones) is less dangerous than inhaling mercury vapor since metal mercury is not absorbed by the body. Here we discuss mercury, its toxic compounds, usage in an appliance and how to dispose of mercury containing devices.
DimethylMercury-Dimethyl Mercury is highly toxic and can cause long term poisoning even you wear latex gloves.Just two drops or spills of the compound is enough to cause a neurotoxic effect. Dimethyl Mercury symptoms will appear months after the exposure. A famous example of Dimethyl poisoning was of that of chemist Karen E. Wetterhahn, She accidentally spilled the two drops of the sweet smelling chemical onto her gloves. Just months after the exposure she showed signs of Dimethylmercury poisoning and afterward, she went to coma and had be removed from life support machine.
Methyl Mercury - A mercury compound formed from forest fires, volcanoes, and factories that produce caustic soda, chlorine, and cement. Mining is also a major source of mercury. When this mercury compound goes into the sea, it is ingested some fish and further goes to fishes higher in a food chain. When that happens, methyl mercury contamination occurs.
Collect and place mercury-containing appliances in sealed container or box.
Seal the box or container.
Label the enclosure with "Hazardous Containing Mercury Inside."
Contact a reliable appliance recycling company such as HVATTT Services.
Biodegradable or Biodegradability refers to the susceptibility of materials to decomposition or organic downgrade to simple chemical components. Non-biodegradable or non-biodegradability pertains to materials that don't degrade even after a huge time. A banana peel will degrade within days while styrofoams will take long to degrade. Knowing the which one and which are biodegradable and non-biodegradable is essential to appliance recycling and garbage segregating. Below is the table showing Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable Materials commonly found in homes or as parts of appliances.
Facts between biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials
Biodegradable materials can be degraded when left in a natural setting. Microorganisms, fungi, insects, solar radiation such as ultraviolet rays, the wind, water, and oxygen contribute to decomposition wind, water and oxygen contribute to decomposition
Non-Biodegradable materials do not degrade and will just accumulate in landfills, topsoil, and subsoils. If that happens, non-biodegradables such as glass, plastic bottles and bags can accumulate and block drainage.
Plastic bottles considered as biodegradables since they are made up of corn or starch can be rendered non-biodegradable if not exposed to sunlight.
Biodegradable substances are made up of organic chemicals and materials such as protein and cellulose while non-biodegradable substances contain metals and inorganic materials.
Pouring liquid mercury metal
Unknown to household owners some recyclables may have hazardous substances that can either cause radiation burns, poisoning or skin disorders. These substances can be parts of electronic devices or the material itself that make up the recyclable material. Some of these substances can be found in bottles, packaging equipment, and appliances. Here are some of the common potentially hazardous materials.
Arsenic - A highly toxic chemical that is commonly used in rat poisons. It is a grayish metalloid substance that is used by OEM or original equipment manufacturers as conductors in devices such as calculators, TV sets and computer circuit boards. If ingested, arsenic can cause cirrhosis in the liver, cancers in kidneys and liver and Blackfoot disease which can lead to gangrene. Arsenic can cause damage to the renal and cardiovascular system.
Mercury-Named after the God of messengers, this silvery liquid metal is a poor conductor of heat but the good conductor of electricity. Usually found in thermostats, CFL bulbs, thermometers, manometers and barometers, mercury serves as electrical conductor. Mercury and its compounds are toxic and can cause organ damage, brain death, neurological symptoms, and blindness. The most toxic of all mercury compounds is methyl mercury which is an organic form of mercury. Mercury vapors found in CFL light bulb and methyl mercury are highly toxic and reactive. In fact, they are the primary cause of the Minamata disease. Elemental mercury or liquid metal is less toxic but still can cause health problems if ingested since it can react to foods high in choline. Watch out for this mercury containing devices namely switches, quicksilver maze toy, button cell batteries, fluorescent lamps, hearing aid batteries, oven flame sensors and contact lens solution.
Lead - Another shining star in the category of toxic chemicals, lead like arsenic is highly toxic and cause a flurry of physiological problems and life-threatening diseases. Effects of long-term lead exposure are kidney damage, abdominal pain, headaches and difficulty sleeping. Lead is abundant in electronics since it is used as solder material for sealing circuit joints. Electronic devices such as resistors, capacitors, relays, switches, lead acid batteries and speaker devices all contain lead.
BPA or Bisphenol A - an organic chemical used as the ingredient in consumer plastic bottles such as water jug, hydration bottles, and soft drink bottles. Numerous researchers showed that BPA interferes with the normal with the body's usage or production of hormones. Medical literature on the internet showed links between BPA and some ill effects in the human body. These effects are: decrease in the effectiveness of chemotherapy, increase in the incidence of heart disease, male impotence, asthma and type 2 diabetes. Although the said ill effects have been associated with BPAs, there are still more studies to fully show that BPA is harmful to health.
Cadmium - A silvery bluish and soft metal, cadmium is found in rechargeable batteries such as the nickel-cadmium battery. Just like lead and mercury, cadmium is toxic in its fumes and dust form. Adverse effects include tubular dysfunction in kidneys which can lead to renal failure, cardiovascular disease, bone density loss and possible breast cancer effects.Possible electronic sources of cadmium are as follows Television, metal plating, and pigments in devices.
Most or all electronic gadgets or devices or containers do contain some of these toxic elements and rare earth metals. Although they are safe and may not be harmful if left behind, they can still cause harm if accidentally or intentionally ingested. It is best to send junk appliances and recyclable containers to recycling facilities for next collection and recycling. One way thing is to mark junk tools with the hazard warning. In that way, these rare earth metals can be recycled and potentially dangerous substances isolated.
Science described electrical energy as the movement of charged particles (electrons) from one point to another. These electrons can travel in highly conductive material such as metallic wire and wet materials with high mineral content. Though science explained a lot about electricity still, our understanding of power is incomplete and shrouded in mystery just like gravity and the bizarre quantum particles. What we know about electricity is that it powers appliances, charges battery, runs LED lamps and controls your popular smartphone. And of course, on the dark side, its high voltage electricity carries skull and bones symbol which means it is deadly when touched live.
The internet has a lot of videos and pictures showing people being electrocuted and statistics of electrocution deaths. One video in a blood and gore blog shows a man touching an overhead live wire in the train station, upon touching it, he suddenly sparked and fell. Afterward, video commenters posted different versions of their conclusion, some were witty, and others are argumentative telling that he is alive. But one for sure, if he didn’t survive he is toasted. This short incident shows that electricity is a power that can’t be underestimated and the time you touch one, you will resemble that skull and crossbones symbol. Even in homes, you have to take precaution when working with electricity. Here are the tips to avoid electrical related accidents,
Always wear protective gear when working around electrical wires, turned on television, capacitors and circuit boards under testing. You can buy rubber gloves, rubber boots or safety shoe, goggles, hard hat and plain clothes. Don’t wear jewelry and ties.
Contact a qualified electrical technician such as and when working on complex electrical problems. Never try relying on luck when dealing with electricity.
Discharge capacitors when working on circuit boards – Capacitors still carries the electrical charge which can cause shock. How to discharge a capacitor?
Disconnect the device. Large capacitors that look like large batteries are dangerous.
Do not discharge capacitors by short-circuiting them with the screwdriver since it may create the electrical arc and damage nearby components.
Use two jumper clips connected by a resistor and attached to the ends of two screwdrivers. Use these two screwdrivers to touch each of the two capacitor terminals. Just touch the screwdriver insulated handle, not the metal ends and neither the capacitor since it gets hot while discharging.
Do not overload AC outlets – Overloading can cause further heating and hence electrical fire. It is one of the most common causes of fire.
When pruning or cutting trees or just trying to get a fruit or object from a tree which is adjacent to a power line. Don’t try reaching them with a tree branch. Plant material is conductive just like metal.
Treat every outlet and wires as live unless it is a single isolated wire. You might not know if they harbor current or not unless you are carrying a multitester or an electrical current detection gadget.
Make 100% sure that the main power source is off. Power is isolated from the rest of the circuit when.
The barrier between the switch and the circuit works correctly
Your multitester equipment is working and reliable. Standard testing devices include continuity testers, non-contact voltage testers, and clamp multitesters.
Only buy those high-quality electrical devices and appliances which have a safety inspection or government regulatory certification seal. For instance, low quality Christmas lights can be a fire hazard.
Man made materials such as plastics are often hardly biodegradable. Most will just settle down on top soil, in the corner, or landfill. Some will cause drainage blockage and flood. When landfills grow into mountain size, garbage can take up additional lands and therefore use other lands that should be used in housing. If waste culture goes uncheck, our numerous places in our planet will become the barren wasteland. To prevent wastes and recyclable materials from going into landfills reducing wastes can begin inside your kitchen, backyard or garden. Here are the tips on how to reduce wastes.
1. First in, first out - If you work as a chef in a commercial kitchen, you had been probably aware of first in and first out policy. This means using up the food that has the early expiration date and using those that have later expiration date. This method also applies to non-edible items such as cleaning and chemical products. If these cleaning or chemical products go expired, their usefulness or potency will be gone.
2.Take care your electronic equipment - If computers are maintained properly and used with care, they can last for long without any problems. Laptop computers such as Compaq and Toshiba can function normally even after a decade as long you maintain them properly. To keep your laptop in its optimal function, you should regularly clean it by cloth and compressed air, upgrade hardware such as RAM card and hard disk drives.
3. Send broken equipment to appliance recycling company - In the United States, numerous recycling companies specialize in collecting and recycling appliances. These businesses can turn your broken appliances into individual pieces categorized into metal, plastics, wood and rare earth metals.
4. Segregate - Use a separate container for biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Those that are recyclable and won't degrade by biological or chemical means should go to no- biodegradable labeled trash can while those that are perishable should go to the non-biodegradable. Non-biodegradable include aluminum foil, plastic wrapping, solvent containers, discarded PET bottles and broken appliances. Biodegradable include paper, clothing, food leftovers, fruit peeling and paper tetra packs which all can be composted and turned into fertilizer.
With every purchase of gadgets, devices and electronic goods, there will always be a corresponding increase in E-waste. Desktop computers, smartphones, kitchen appliances, washing machine, furnaces and water heaters will soon reach their end of service life and will either become e-waste or displays in the basement or attic. A surge in E-waste will prove as an environmental concern and pose a hazard. To reduce the number of E-waste going to landfills, you may find the tips below useful to prolong the useful life of electronic goods.
Reuse electronic waste by fashioning them into useful daily gadgets. For instance, an old CRT monitor with broken tube can be fashioned as kitty box, light bulbs as oil lamp decor, desktop CPU housing as mail post or glass table. Broken Keyboards can be turned into pencil holder and picture frame while old laptops can be refurbished into new ones.The ideas are numerous into inventing new usable things out of E-waste.
Reuse Electronics - Appliances and old computers can be repaired and reused again. A broken laptop with busted TFT screen or CPU can be reused by replacing those parts. Similarly, this can be done to desktop computers, components, floppy disks, CD-ROM drivers, modem and CRT monitors with the intact tube, hard disk drives, and Bernoulli drives.
Donate old computers - Computers that are either outdated and needing its usable life can be repaired and refurbished and donated to charities or foundations that support education. Developing countries that have provinces without access to computers, laptops or even internet will always need computers for teaching and research.
Contact the device's OEM (Original Electronic Manufacturer) - Some electronic manufacturing companies have programs that pay device owners in exchange for sending the old or unwanted electronic device.
Take good care of your device - To reduce the likelihood of your device reaching its usable life, take good care of your electronics and ensure that it is maintained. For instance, free your laptop from dust, defrag and run anti-virus.